The Encyclopedia of Addictive Drugs: A Reference Guide to Their History and Use

Recreational drug use

Scientific information is presented in a clear, simple manner designed for students and general readers alike. In addition to the A-Z descriptions, Miller provides an explanation of general drug types, such as stimulants and hallucinogens, as well as the aspects of drug abuse, including tolerance and withdrawal. A list of print and electronic sources is also included for readers seeking further information.

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This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Nov 15, Kainan Liu rated it did not like it. Ramzi rated it liked it Jul 30, Kofi Obibini marked it as to-read Feb 27, This under valued fact plays an important role when helping drug addicts in the most effective way and creating policies regarding drugs. Through explanations of the history, culture, and intrigue of drug usage, Gahlinger successfully makes readers interested in drugs and proves common stereotypes about them and the people who use drugs wrong.

Gahlinger reveals that drugs have been used throughout history for thousands of years in medicine, culture, and food. He proves that there is no single type of drug user, because drugs are accessible to everybody. Drugs are common, widespread, and persistent, so they are an important subject for everybody to learn about. I found this book to be a very well written and informative guide to the world of illegal drugs, giving more information on ones we already know and telling us about ones we've never even heard of.

I feel that Paul Gahlinger wrote this book in order for us not to just consider drugs as poisonous acid that corrupts society, but interesting chemicals including their effects and history. The most striking portion of each chapter was the long term effects on one's health and the level of addictiveness.

Recreational drug use - Wikipedia

At the age of 16 these drugs may not play a role In one's life but it is important to read about the effects it has in someone's life so you can avoid them at a young age. As a student in high school I would recommend this book to kids around my age and older. This book does a great Job of informing people on which drugs are the most dangerous and can affect you negatively. In conclusion, I thoroughly enjoyed learning about each of the illegal drugs in the United States in Paul Gahlingers book.

The content was very interesting and worth reading if you're into this. A Complete Guide to their History, Chemistry, Use, and Abuse by Paul Gahlinger is a book hat classifies and gives information about many different illegal drugs, common and uncommon. I have learned a lot of new information from this book, and have built on the information I previously had. This book was written to inform people about the effects of drug.

This book presents information in a reader friendly way and has many side notes and references to history and different people. Although the writer does not have a high school degree, he was accepted into college and has a B. The author classifies each drug by category, which in helpful. He has many statistics to back up his arguments. Non information stated conflicts with what I have learned in the past.

I do not believe this book is to tell people to not do drugs. The book does a good job of informing people about drugs, not telling them what to do.

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This book has increased by understanding of illegal drugs. I would recommend it to anyone in a heartbeat. See all reviews. Most recent customer reviews. Published 4 months ago. Published 12 months ago. Published 1 year ago. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers.

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Handbooks and manuals Handbooks, manuals, etc Document Type: Ayahuasca , a decoction prepared with Banisteriopsis caapi. Drugs are not always the demise of a culture, but can also be the defining element of one. Generally, recreational drugs are in three categories: The International Journal of the Addictions. This cue attraction is another signature feature of incentive salience

View or edit your browsing history. Get to Know Us. English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Advocates of this philosophy point to the many well-known artists and intellectuals who have used drugs, experimentally or otherwise, with few detrimental effects on their lives. Responsible drug use becomes problematic only when the use of the substance significantly interferes with the user's daily life.

Drugs of abuse : a reference guide to their history and use

Responsible drug use advocates that users should not take drugs at the same time as activities such as driving, swimming, operating machinery, or other activities that are unsafe without a sober state. Responsible drug use is emphasized as a primary prevention technique in harm-reduction drug policies. Harm-reduction policies were popularized in the late s, although they began in the s counter-culture, when cartoons explaining responsible drug use and the consequences of irresponsible drug use were distributed to users.

For example, people who inject illicit drugs can minimize harm to both themselves and members of the community through proper injecting technique, using new needles and syringes each time, and proper disposal of all injecting equipment. In efforts to curtail recreational drug use, governments worldwide introduced several laws prohibiting the possession of almost all varieties of recreational drugs during the 20th century.

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The West's " War on Drugs " however, is now facing increasing criticism. Evidence is insufficient to tell if behavioral interventions help prevent recreational drug use in children. Alcohol is the most widely used drug in Australia, tried one or more times in their lives by In the s, the number of Americans who had tried cannabis at least once increased over twentyfold. Many movements and organizations are advocating for or against the liberalization of the use of recreational drugs , notably cannabis legalization.

Subcultures have emerged among users of recreational drugs, as well as among those who abstain from them, such as teetotalism and " straight edge ". The prevalence of recreational drugs in human societies is widely reflected in fiction, entertainment, and the arts, subject to prevailing laws and social conventions. In video games , for example, enemies are often drug dealers, a narrative device that justifies the player killing them. Other games portray drugs as a kind of " power-up "; their effect is often unrealistically conveyed by making the screen wobble and blur.

The following substances are used recreationally: Drugs often associated with a particular route of administration. Many drugs can be consumed in more than one way. For example, marijuana can be swallowed like food or smoked, and cocaine can be "sniffed" in the nostrils, injected, or, with various modifications, smoked.

Many drugs are taken through various routes. Intravenous route is the most efficient, but also one of the most dangerous.

The Encyclopedia of Addictive Drugs

Nasal, rectal, inhalation and smoking are safer. The oral route is one of the safest and most comfortable, but of little bioavailability. Depressants are psychoactive drugs that temporarily diminish the function or activity of a specific part of the body or mind. Examples of these kinds of effects may include anxiolysis, sedation, and hypotension.

Depressants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines and as illicit substances. Depressants exert their effects through a number of different pharmacological mechanisms, the most prominent of which include facilitation of GABA or opioid activity, and inhibition of adrenergic , histamine or acetylcholine activity.

Some are also capable of inducing feelings of euphoria a happy sensation. The most widely used depressant by far is alcohol. Stimulants or "uppers", such as amphetamines or cocaine , which increase mental or physical function, have an opposite effect to depressants. Antihistamines or "histamine antagonists" inhibit the release or action of histamine. Antihistamines are used as treatment for allergies. Allergies are caused by an excessive response of the body to allergens , such as the pollen released by grasses and trees. An allergic reaction causes release of histamine by the body.

Other uses of antihistamines are to help with normal symptoms of insect stings even if there is no allergic reaction. Their recreational appeal exists mainly due to their anticholinergic properties, that induce anxiolysis and, in some cases such as diphenhydramine , chlorpheniramine , and orphenadrine , a characteristic euphoria at moderate doses. High dosages taken to induce recreational drug effects may lead to overdoses. Antihistamines are also consumed in combination with alcohol, particularly by youth who find it hard to obtain alcohol.

A Reference Encyclopedia

The combination of the two drugs can cause intoxication with lower alcohol doses. Hallucinations and possibly delirium resembling the effects of Datura stramonium can result if the drug is taken in much higher than therapeutical dosages. Antihistamines are widely available over the counter at drug stores without a prescription , in the form of allergy medication and some cough medicines.

They are sometimes used in combination with other substances such as alcohol. The most common unsupervised use of antihistamines in terms of volume and percentage of the total is perhaps in parallel to the medicinal use of some antihistamines to stretch out and intensify the effects of opioids and depressants. The most commonly used are hydroxyzine , mainly to stretch out a supply of other drugs, as in medical use, and the above-mentioned ethanolamine and alkylamine-class first-generation antihistamines, which are - once again as in the s - the subject of medical research into their anti-depressant properties.

For all of the above reasons, the use of medicinal scopolamine for recreational uses is also seen.

Analgesics also known as "painkillers" are used to relieve pain achieve analgesia. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems; they include paracetamol para-acetylaminophenol , also known in the US as acetaminophen , the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs such as the salicylates , and opioid drugs such as hydrocodone , codeine , heroin and oxycodone.

Some further examples of the brand name prescription opiates and opioid analgesics that may be used recreationally include Vicodin, Lortab, Norco hydrocodone , Avinza, Kapanol morphine , Opana, Paramorphan oxymorphone , Dilaudid, Palladone hydromorphone , and OxyContin oxycodone. Stimulants , also known as "psychostimulants", [39] induce euphoria with improvements in mental and physical function, such as enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion.

Due to their effects typically having an "up" quality to them, stimulants are also occasionally referred to as "uppers". Depressants or "downers", which decrease mental or physical function, are in stark contrast to stimulants and are considered to be their functional opposites. Stimulants enhance the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Common effects may include increased alertness , awareness , wakefulness , endurance , productivity , and motivation , arousal , locomotion , heart rate , and blood pressure , and a diminished desire for food and sleep. Use of stimulants may cause the body to reduce significantly its production of natural body chemicals that fulfill similar functions.

Until the body reestablishes its normal state, once the effect of the ingested stimulant has worn off the user may feel depressed, lethargic, confused, and miserable. This is referred to as a "crash", and may provoke reuse of the stimulant. Hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: